The Science

Over 200 scientific articles describe transcranial electric stimulation as safe and effective.

The following quotation sums it up:

“…noninvasive brain stimulation with weak, exogenous electric fields (transcranial current stimulation, TCS) has undergone a renaissance due to the broad scope of its possible applications in modulating brain activity for cognitive enhancement and treatment of brain disorders.”


 -Frohlich, F. Endogenous and exogenous electric fields as modifiers of brain activity: rational design of noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial alternating current stimulation. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience (2014).

Selected references

Alekseichuk, I., Diers, K., Paulus, W., Antal, A., 2015. Transcranial electrical stimulation of the occipital cortex during visual perception modifies the magnitude of BOLD activity: A combined tES-fMRI approach. Neuroimage.

Alonzo, A., Brassil, J., Taylor, J.L., Martin, D., Loo, C.K., 2012. Daily transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) leads to greater increases in cortical excitability than second daily transcranial direct current stimulation. Brain stimulation 5, 208-213.

Antal, A., Boros, K., Poreisz, C., Chaieb, L., Terney, D., Paulus, W., 2008. Comparatively weak after-effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on cortical excitability in humans. Brain stimulation 1, 97-105.

Antal, A., Fischer, T., Saiote, C., Miller, R., Chaieb, L., Wang, D.J., Plessow, F., Paulus, W., Kirschbaum, C., 2014. Transcranial electrical stimulation modifies the neuronal response to psychosocial stress exposure. Hum. Brain Mapp. 35, 3750-3759.

Ardesch, J.J., Sikken, J.R., Veltink, P.H., van der Aa, H.E., Hageman, G., Buschman, H.P., 2010. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy activates the vocal folds maximally at therapeutic levels. Epilepsy Res. 89, 227-231.

Auvichayapat, N., Rotenberg, A., Gersner, R., Ngodklang, S., Tiamkao, S., Tassaneeyakul, W., Auvichayapat, P., 2013. Transcranial direct current stimulation for treatment of refractory childhood focal epilepsy. Brain stimulation 6, 696-700.

Bai, S., Loo, C., Dokos, S., 2013. A review of computational models of transcranial electrical stimulation. Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 41, 21-35.

Barham, M.P., Enticott, P.G., Conduit, R., Lum, J.A., 2016. Transcranial electrical stimulation during sleep enhances declarative (but not procedural) memory consolidation: Evidence from a meta-analysis. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev.

Bastani, A., Jaberzadeh, S., 2013. a-tDCS differential modulation of corticospinal excitability: the effects of electrode size. Brain stimulation 6, 932-937.

Battleday, R.M., Muller, T., Clayton, M.S., Cohen Kadosh, R., 2014. Mapping the mechanisms of transcranial alternating current stimulation: a pathway from network effects to cognition. Frontiers in psychiatry 5, 162.

Beam, W., Borckardt, J.J., Reeves, S.T., George, M.S., 2009. An efficient and accurate new method for locating the F3 position for prefrontal TMS applications. Brain stimulation 2, 50-54.

Been, G., Ngo, T.T., Miller, S.M., Fitzgerald, P.B., 2007. The use of tDCS and CVS as methods of non-invasive brain stimulation. Brain research reviews 56, 346-361.

Berryhill, M.E., Jones, K.T., 2012. tDCS selectively improves working memory in older adults with more education. Neurosci. Lett. 521, 148-151.

Bikson, M., Datta, A., Rahman, A., Scaturro, J., 2010. Electrode montages for tDCS and weak transcranial electrical stimulation: role of “return” electrode’s position and size. Clin. Neurophysiol. 121, 1976-1978.

Bikson, M., Name, A., Rahman, A., 2013. Origins of specificity during tDCS: anatomical, activity-selective, and input-bias mechanisms. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 688.

Boehringer, A., Macher, K., Dukart, J., Villringer, A., Pleger, B., 2013. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation modulates verbal working memory. Brain stimulation 6, 649-653.

Boggio, P.S., Ferrucci, R., Mameli, F., Martins, D., Martins, O., Vergari, M., Tadini, L., Scarpini, E., Fregni, F., Priori, A., 2012. Prolonged visual memory enhancement after direct current stimulation in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain stimulation 5, 223-230.

Boggio, P.S., Ferrucci, R., Rigonatti, S.P., Covre, P., Nitsche, M., Pascual-Leone, A., Fregni, F., 2006. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurol. Sci. 249, 31-38.

Boggio, P.S., Khoury, L.P., Martins, D.C., Martins, O.E., de Macedo, E.C., Fregni, F., 2009. Temporal cortex direct current stimulation enhances performance on a visual recognition memory task in Alzheimer disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 80, 444-447.

Brunoni, A.R., Nitsche, M.A., Bolognini, N., Bikson, M., Wagner, T., Merabet, L., Edwards, D.J., Valero-Cabre, A., Rotenberg, A., Pascual-Leone, A., Ferrucci, R., Priori, A., Boggio, P.S., Fregni, F., 2012. Clinical research with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): challenges and future directions. Brain stimulation 5, 175-195.

Brunoni, A.R., Vanderhasselt, M.A., 2014. Working memory improvement with non-invasive brain stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Cogn. 86, 1-9.

Chi, R.P., Fregni, F., Snyder, A.W., 2010. Visual memory improved by non-invasive brain stimulation. Brain Res. 1353, 168-175.

Chi, R.P., Snyder, A.W., 2012. Brain stimulation enables the solution of an inherently difficult problem. Neurosci. Lett. 515, 121-124.

Clemens, B., Jung, S., Zvyagintsev, M., Domahs, F., Willmes, K., 2013. Modulating arithmetic fact retrieval: a single-blind, sham-controlled tDCS study with repeated fMRI measurements. Neuropsychologia 51, 1279-1286.

Cohen Kadosh, R., Soskic, S., Iuculano, T., Kanai, R., Walsh, V., 2010. Modulating neuronal activity produces specific and long-lasting changes in numerical competence. Curr. Biol. 20, 2016-2020.

Conson, M., Errico, D., Mazzarella, E., Giordano, M., Grossi, D., Trojano, L., 2015. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information. PLoS One 10, e0126448.

Datta, A., Baker, J.M., Bikson, M., Fridriksson, J., 2011. Individualized model predicts brain current flow during transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment in responsive stroke patient. Brain stimulation 4, 169-174.

De Ridder, D., Vanneste, S., 2012. EEG Driven tDCS Versus Bifrontal tDCS for Tinnitus. Frontiers in psychiatry 3, 84.

Di Lazzaro, V., 2011. TMS2.2 Effects of tDCS and rTMS on cortical circuits. Clin. Neurophysiol. 122, S54.

Di Lazzaro, V., Ranieri, F., Profice, P., Pilato, F., Mazzone, P., Capone, F., Insola, A., Oliviero, A., 2013. Transcranial direct current stimulation effects on the excitability of corticospinal axons of the human cerebral cortex. Brain stimulation 6, 641-643.

Dmochowski, J.P., Datta, A., Huang, Y., Richardson, J.D., Bikson, M., Fridriksson, J., Parra, L.C., 2013. Targeted transcranial direct current stimulation for rehabilitation after stroke. Neuroimage 75, 12-19.

Edwards, D., Cortes, M., Datta, A., Minhas, P., Wassermann, E.M., Bikson, M., 2013. Physiological and modeling evidence for focal transcranial electrical brain stimulation in humans: a basis for high-definition tDCS. Neuroimage 74, 266-275.

Edwards, D., Cortes, M., Datta, A., Minhas, P., Wassermann, E.M., Bikson, M., 2013. Physiological and modeling evidence for focal transcranial electrical brain stimulation in humans: a basis for high-definition tDCS. Neuroimage 74, 266-275.

Elmasry, J., Loo, C., Martin, D., 2015. A systematic review of transcranial electrical stimulation combined with cognitive training. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. 33, 263-278.

Faber, M., Vanneste, S., Fregni, F., De Ridder, D., 2012. Top down prefrontal affective modulation of tinnitus with multiple sessions of tDCS of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Brain stimulation 5, 492-498.

Feeser, M., Prehn, K., Kazzer, P., Mungee, A., Bajbouj, M., 2014. Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances cognitive control during emotion regulation. Brain stimulation 7, 105-112.

Ferrucci, R., Mameli, F., Guidi, I., Mrakic-Sposta, S., Vergari, M., Marceglia, S., Cogiamanian, F., Barbieri, S., Scarpini, E., Priori, A., 2008. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves recognition memory in Alzheimer disease. Neurology 71, 493-498.

Fertonani, A., Ferrari, C., Miniussi, C., 2015. What do you feel if I apply transcranial electric stimulation? Safety, sensations and secondary induced effects. Clin. Neurophysiol. 126, 2181-2188.

Filmer, H.L., Mattingley, J.B., Dux, P.E., 2013. Improved multitasking following prefrontal tDCS. Cortex 49, 2845-2852.

Fitzgerald, P.B., 2014. Transcranial pulsed current stimulation: a new way forward? Clin. Neurophysiol. 125, 217-219.

Fregni, F., Boggio, P.S., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Antal, A., Feredoes, E., Marcolin, M.A., Rigonatti, S.P., Silva, M.T., Paulus, W., Pascual-Leone, A., 2005. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Exp. Brain Res. 166, 23-30.

Fritsch, B., DCS promotes BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity. Neuron.

Fritsch, B., Reis, J., Martinowich, K., Schambra, H.M., Ji, Y., Cohen, L.G., Lu, B., 2010. Direct current stimulation promotes BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity: potential implications for motor learning. Neuron 66, 198-204.

Frohlich, F., 2014. Endogenous and exogenous electric fields as modifiers of brain activity: rational design of noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial alternating current stimulation. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 16, 93-102.

George, M.S., 2012. Brain Stimulation–the field, and the journal, are going ‘from strength to strength’ from the editor-in-chief’s desk. Brain stimulation 5, 173-174.

Gerrits, N.J., van den Heuvel, O.A., van der Werf, Y.D., 2015. Decreased neural activity and neural connectivity while performing a set-shifting task after inhibiting repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the left dorsal prefrontal cortex. BMC Neurosci. 16, 45.

Groppa, S., Bergmann, T.O., Siems, C., Molle, M., Marshall, L., Siebner, H.R., 2010. Slow-oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation can induce bidirectional shifts in motor cortical excitability in awake humans. Neuroscience 166, 1219-1225.

Guleyupoglu, B., Schestatsky, P., Edwards, D., Fregni, F., Bikson, M., 2013. Classification of methods in transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations. J. Neurosci. Methods 219, 297-311.

Haffen, E., Chopard, G., Pretalli, J.B., Magnin, E., Nicolier, M., Monnin, J., Galmiche, J., Rumbach, L., Pazart, L., Sechter, D., Vandel, P., 2012. A case report of daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an adjunctive treatment for Alzheimer disease. Brain stimulation 5, 264-266.

Halko, M.A., Datta, A., Plow, E.B., Scaturro, J., Bikson, M., Merabet, L.B., 2011. Neuroplastic changes following rehabilitative training correlate with regional electrical field induced with tDCS. Neuroimage 57, 885-891.

Heimrath, K., Sandmann, P., Becke, A., Muller, N.G., Zaehle, T., 2012. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the parietal cortex in a visuo-spatial working memory task. Frontiers in psychiatry 3, 56.

Heinze, K., Ruh, N., Nitschke, K., Reis, J., Fritsch, B., Unterrainer, J.M., Rahm, B., Weiller, C., Kaller, C.P., 2014. Transcranial direct current stimulation over left and right DLPFC: Lateralized effects on planning performance and related eye movements. Biol. Psychol. 102, 130-140.

Helfrich, R.F., Schneider, T.R., Rach, S., Trautmann-Lengsfeld, S.A., Engel, A.K., Herrmann, C.S., 2014. Entrainment of brain oscillations by transcranial alternating current stimulation. Curr. Biol. 24, 333-339.

Herrmann, C.S., Rach, S., Neuling, T., Struber, D., 2013. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: a review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 279.

Holland, R., Leff, A.P., Josephs, O., Galea, J.M., Desikan, M., Price, C.J., Rothwell, J.C., Crinion, J., 2011. Speech facilitation by left inferior frontal cortex stimulation. Curr. Biol. 21, 1403-1407.

Hoy, K.E., Emonson, M.R., Arnold, S.L., Thomson, R.H., Daskalakis, Z.J., Fitzgerald, P.B., 2013. Testing the limits: Investigating the effect of tDCS dose on working memory enhancement in healthy controls. Neuropsychologia 51, 1777-1784.

Jaberzadeh, S., Bastani, A., Zoghi, M., 2014. Anodal transcranial pulsed current stimulation: A novel technique to enhance corticospinal excitability. Clin. Neurophysiol. 125, 344-351.

Jaberzadeh, S., Bastani, A., Zoghi, M., Morgan, P., Fitzgerald, P.B., 2015. Anodal Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation: The Effects of Pulse Duration on Corticospinal Excitability. PLoS One 10, e0131779.

Javadi, A.H., Brunec, I.K., Walsh, V., Penny, W.D., Spiers, H.J., 2014. Transcranial electrical brain stimulation modulates neuronal tuning curves in perception of numerosity and duration. Neuroimage 102 Pt 2, 451-457.

Javadi, A.H., Cheng, P., 2013. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances reconsolidation of long-term memory. Brain stimulation 6, 668-674.

Javadi, A.H., Walsh, V., 2012. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates declarative memory. Brain stimulation 5, 231-241.

Jo, J.M., Kim, Y.H., Ko, M.H., Ohn, S.H., Joen, B., Lee, K.H., 2009. Enhancing the working memory of stroke patients using tDCS. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 88, 404-409.

Jones, K.T., Stephens, J.A., Alam, M., Bikson, M., Berryhill, M.E., 2015. Longitudinal neurostimulation in older adults improves working memory. PLoS One 10, e0121904.

Journal, W.S., Brain Stimulation. Wall Street Journal.

Jurcak, V., Tsuzuki, D., Dan, I., 2007. 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems revisited: their validity as relative head-surface-based positioning systems. Neuroimage 34, 1600-1611.

Kaminski, E., Hoff, M., Sehm, B., Taubert, M., Conde, V., Steele, C.J., Villringer, A., Ragert, P., 2013. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during complex whole body motor skill learning. Neurosci. Lett. 552, 76-80.

Kempe, R., Huang, Y., Parra, L.C., 2014. Simulating pad-electrodes with high-definition arrays in transcranial electric stimulation. Journal of neural engineering 11, 026003.

Kim, J.H., Kim, D.W., Chang, W.H., Kim, Y.H., Kim, K., Im, C.H., 2014. Inconsistent outcomes of transcranial direct current stimulation may originate from anatomical differences among individuals: electric field simulation using individual MRI data. Neurosci. Lett. 564, 6-10.

Kim, J.H., Kim, D.W., Chang, W.H., Kim, Y.H., Kim, K., Im, C.H., 2014. Inconsistent outcomes of transcranial direct current stimulation may originate from anatomical differences among individuals: electric field simulation using individual MRI data. Neurosci. Lett. 564, 6-10.

Kincses, T.Z., Antal, A., Nitsche, M.A., Bártfai, O., Paulus, W., 2004. Facilitation of probabilistic classification learning by transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex in the human. Neuropsychologia 42, 113-117.

Knotkova, H., Nitsche, M.A., Cruciani, R.A., 2013. Putative physiological mechanisms underlying tDCS analgesic effects. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 628.

Kongthong, N., Minami, T., Nakauchi, S., 2013. Semantic processing in subliminal face stimuli: an EEG and tDCS study. Neurosci. Lett. 544, 141-146.

Krause, B., Cohen Kadosh, R., 2013. Can transcranial electrical stimulation improve learning difficulties in atypical brain development? A future possibility for cognitive training. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 6, 176-194.

Krause, B., Cohen Kadosh, R., 2014. Not all brains are created equal: the relevance of individual differences in responsiveness to transcranial electrical stimulation. Front. Syst. Neurosci. 8, 25.

Krause, B., Marquez-Ruiz, J., Cohen Kadosh, R., 2013. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation: a role for cortical excitation/inhibition balance? Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 602.

Kuo, M.F., Nitsche, M.A., 2012. Effects of transcranial electrical stimulation on cognition. Clin. EEG Neurosci. 43, 192-199.

Kuo, M.F., Nitsche, M.A., 2012. Effects of transcranial electrical stimulation on cognition. Clin. EEG Neurosci. 43, 192-199.

Kuo, M.F., Nitsche, M.A., 2015. Exploring prefrontal cortex functions in healthy humans by transcranial electrical stimulation. Neurosci. Bull. 31, 198-206.

Kuo, M.F., Paulus, W., Nitsche, M.A., 2014. Therapeutic effects of non-invasive brain stimulation with direct currents (tDCS) in neuropsychiatric diseases. Neuroimage 85 Pt 3, 948-960.

Lee, K.G., Jacobs, M.F., Asmussen, M.J., Zapallow, C.M., Tommerdahl, M., Nelson, A.J., 2013. Continuous theta-burst stimulation modulates tactile synchronization. BMC Neurosci. 14, 89.

Lee, W.H., Lisanby, S.H., Laine, A.F., Peterchev, A.V., 2015. Electric Field Model of Transcranial Electric Stimulation in Nonhuman Primates: Correspondence to Individual Motor Threshold. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62, 2095-2105.

Lefaucheur, J.P., Andre-Obadia, N., Antal, A., Ayache, S.S., Baeken, C., Benninger, D.H., Cantello, R.M., Cincotta, M., de Carvalho, M., De Ridder, D., Devanne, H., Di Lazzaro, V., Filipovic, S.R., Hummel, F.C., Jaaskelainen, S.K., Kimiskidis, V.K., Koch, G., Langguth, B., Nyffeler, T., Oliviero, A., Padberg, F., Poulet, E., Rossi, S., Rossini, P.M., Rothwell, J.C., Schonfeldt-Lecuona, C., Siebner, H.R., Slotema, C.W., Stagg, C.J., Valls-Sole, J., Ziemann, U., Paulus, W., Garcia-Larrea, L., 2014. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Clin. Neurophysiol. 125, 2150-2206.

Legatt, A.D., Emerson, R.G., Epstein, C.M., MacDonald, D.B., Deletis, V., Bravo, R.J., Lopez, J.R., 2015. ACNS Guideline: Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Motor Evoked Potential (TES-MEP) Monitoring. J. Clin. Neurophysiol.

Leite, J., Carvalho, S., Fregni, F., Boggio, P.S., Goncalves, O.F., 2013. The effects of cross-hemispheric dorsolateral prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on task switching. Brain stimulation 6, 660-667.

Lu, M., Thorlin, T., Ueno, S., Persson, M., 2007. Comparison of Maximum Induced Current and Electric Field from Transcranial Direct Current and Magnetic Stimulations of a Human Head Model. PIERS Online 3, 178-183.

Manenti, R., Brambilla, M., Petesi, M., Ferrari, C., Cotelli, M., 2013. Enhancing verbal episodic memory in older and young subjects after non-invasive brain stimulation. Front. Aging Neurosci. 5, 49.

Marangon, M., Bucchioni, G., Massacesi, S., Castiello, U., 2013. Anticipating the course of an action: evidence from corticospinal excitability. BMC Neurosci. 14, 91.

Maryniak, Resistivity and Resistance.

Mauri, P., Miniussi, C., Balconi, M., Brignani, D., 2015. Bursts of transcranial electrical stimulation increase arousal in a continuous performance test. Neuropsychologia 74, 127-136.

McAdams, 2011. Wearable sensor systems-the challenges. IEEE EMBS.

Metwally, M.K., Han, S.M., Kim, T.S., 2015. The effect of tissue anisotropy on the radial and tangential components of the electric field in transcranial direct current stimulation. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 53, 1085-1101.

Miniussi, C., Cappa, S.F., Cohen, L.G., Floel, A., Fregni, F., Nitsche, M.A., Oliveri, M., Pascual-Leone, A., Paulus, W., Priori, A., Walsh, V., 2008. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation/transcranial direct current stimulation in cognitive neurorehabilitation. Brain stimulation 1, 326-336.

Monte-Silva, K., Kuo, M., Paulus, W., Nitsche, M., 2008. Repeated tDCS for prolonging the after-effects of stimulation. Brain stimulation 1, 282.

Mordillo-Mateos, L., Turpin-Fenoll, L., Millan-Pascual, J., Nunez-Perez, N., Panyavin, I., Gomez-Arguelles, J.M., Botia-Paniagua, E., Foffani, G., Lang, N., Oliviero, A., 2012. Effects of simultaneous bilateral tDCS of the human motor cortex. Brain stimulation 5, 214-222.

Mori, F., Nicoletti, C.G., Kusayanagi, H., Foti, C., Restivo, D.A., Marciani, M.G., Centonze, D., 2013. Transcranial direct current stimulation ameliorates tactile sensory deficit in multiple sclerosis. Brain stimulation 6, 654-659.

Mulquiney, P.G., Hoy, K.E., Daskalakis, Z.J., Fitzgerald, P.B., 2011. Improving working memory: exploring the effect of transcranial random noise stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Clin. Neurophysiol. 122, 2384-2389.

Nardone, R., Bergmann, J., Christova, M., Caleri, F., Tezzon, F., Ladurner, G., Trinka, E., Golaszewski, S., 2012. Effect of transcranial brain stimulation for the treatment of Alzheimer disease: a review. Int. J. Alzheimers Dis. 2012, 687909.

Nitsche, M.A., Liebetanz, D., Lang, N., Antal, A., Tergau, F., Paulus, W., 2003. Safety criteria for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans. Clin. Neurophysiol. 114, 2220-2222.

Notturno, F., Marzetti, L., Pizzella, V., Uncini, A., Zappasodi, F., 2014. Local and remote effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the electrical activity of the motor cortical network. Hum. Brain Mapp. 35, 2220-2232.

Oliveira, J.F., Zanao, T.A., Valiengo, L., Lotufo, P.A., Bensenor, I.M., Fregni, F., Brunoni, A.R., 2013. Acute working memory improvement after tDCS in antidepressant-free patients with major depressive disorder. Neurosci. Lett. 537, 60-64.

Opitz, A., Paulus, W., Will, S., Antunes, A., Thielscher, A., 2015. Determinants of the electric field during transcranial direct current stimulation. Neuroimage 109, 140-150.

Ozen, S., Sirota, A., Belluscio, M.A., Anastassiou, C.A., Stark, E., Koch, C., Buzsaki, G., 2010. Transcranial electric stimulation entrains cortical neuronal populations in rats. J. Neurosci. 30, 11476-11485.

Palm, U., Schiller, C., Fintescu, Z., Obermeier, M., Keeser, D., Reisinger, E., Pogarell, O., Nitsche, M.A., Moller, H.J., Padberg, F., 2012. Transcranial direct current stimulation in treatment resistant depression: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Brain stimulation 5, 242-251.

Paneri, B., Toshev, P., Khadka, N., Patel, V., Thomas, C., Tyler, W.J., Parra, L., Bikson, M., The tolerability of transcranial electrical stimulation used across extended periods in naturalistic setting by humans. PeerJ.

Parasuraman, R., Galster, S., 2013. Sensing, assessing, and augmenting threat detection: behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation evidence for the critical role of attention. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 273.

Parazzini, M., Rossi, E., Ferrucci, R., Liorni, I., Priori, A., Ravazzani, P., 2014. Modelling the electric field and the current density generated by cerebellar transcranial DC stimulation in humans. Clin. Neurophysiol. 125, 577-584.

Park, C.H., Chang, W.H., Park, J.Y., Shin, Y.I., Kim, S.T., Kim, Y.H., 2013. Transcranial direct current stimulation increases resting state interhemispheric connectivity. Neurosci. Lett. 539, 7-10.

Paulus, W., 2003. Safety criteria for transcranial direct current. Clinincal Neurophysiology.

Paulus, W., 2011. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES – tDCS; tRNS, tACS) methods. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. 21, 602-617.

Paulus, W., Peterchev, A.V., Ridding, M., 2013. Transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation: technique and paradigms. Handb. Clin. Neurol. 116, 329-342.

Pena-Gomez, C., Sala-Lonch, R., Junque, C., Clemente, I.C., Vidal, D., Bargallo, N., Falcon, C., Valls-Sole, J., Pascual-Leone, A., Bartres-Faz, D., 2012. Modulation of large-scale brain networks by transcranial direct current stimulation evidenced by resting-state functional MRI. Brain stimulation 5, 252-263.

Penolazzi, B., Pastore, M., Mondini, S., 2013. Electrode montage dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on semantic fluency. Behav. Brain Res. 248, 129-135.

Pereira, J.B., Junque, C., Bartres-Faz, D., Marti, M.J., Sala-Llonch, R., Compta, Y., Falcon, C., Vendrell, P., Pascual-Leone, A., Valls-Sole, J., Tolosa, E., 2013. Modulation of verbal fluency networks by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in Parkinson’s disease. Brain stimulation 6, 16-24.

Peterchev, A.V., Wagner, T.A., Miranda, P.C., Nitsche, M.A., Paulus, W., Lisanby, S.H., Pascual-Leone, A., Bikson, M., 2012. Fundamentals of transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation dose: definition, selection, and reporting practices. Brain stimulation 5, 435-453.

Pirulli, C., Fertonani, A., Miniussi, C., 2013. The role of timing in the induction of neuromodulation in perceptual learning by transcranial electric stimulation. Brain stimulation 6, 683-689.

Pirulli, C., Fertonani, A., Miniussi, C., 2013. The role of timing in the induction of neuromodulation in perceptual learning by transcranial electric stimulation. Brain stimulation 6, 683-689.

Postlethwaithe, Fluid ability crystallized ability and performance across multiple domains. UIowa.

Qin, C., Yang, X., Wu, M., Farber, J.P., Linderoth, B., Foreman, R.D., 2009. Modulation of neuronal activity in dorsal column nuclei by upper cervical spinal cord stimulation in rats. Neuroscience 164, 770-776.

Raimundo, R.J., Uribe, C.E., Brasil-Neto, J.P., 2012. Lack of clinically detectable acute changes on autonomic or thermoregulatory functions in healthy subjects after transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Brain stimulation 5, 196-200.

Rakesh, G., Shivakumar, V., Subramaniam, A., Nawani, H., Amaresha, A.C., Narayanaswamy, J.C., Venkatasubramanian, G., 2013. Monotherapy with tDCS for Schizophrenia: a case report. Brain stimulation 6, 708-709.

Rampersad, Simulating tDCS with a detailed anisotropic human head model. IEEETransNeuralSysRehabEng.

Reato, D., Gasca, F., Datta, A., Bikson, M., Marshall, L., Parra, L.C., 2013. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis. PLoS Comput. Biol. 9, e1002898.

Reato, D., Gasca, F., Datta, A., Bikson, M., Marshall, L., Parra, L.C., 2013. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis. PLoS Comput. Biol. 9, e1002898.

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